** Good manners, not to mention simple honesty, requires that I express my gratitude to Dr. Richard Ziegfeld and to Prof. Eli Sagan for their immensely helpful comments on earlier drafts of this essay.

1 And when I checked the Latin text of the Catullus example, below, what did I find but that, although the Latin was all there, the English-trained Loeb editor had omitted, in his translation, the poet's reference to "novem continuas fututiones," meaning (I'm afraid there is no delicate way to put this) "nine straight fucks." Loeb Catullus, 38-39.

2 W.P. Ker's once-famous 1904 book, significantly titled The Dark Ages, speaks of "The Seafarer"'s "hearty poetical enjoyment of the grievous weather" (171).

For discussion of relevant textual issues, see I.L. Gordon, The Seafarer, 1-2, 11-12.

3 Of my three books on translation, the first is an attempt to deal with the translation process, the second an attempt to apply linguistic as well as literary principles to the translation of poetry, and the third an attempt to do the same thing for the translation of prose. These are listed among the works cited and referred to, below.

4 Flaubert explicitly declared, however, "Madame Bovary, c'est moi," "I am Madame Bovary."

5 So-called translation which disregards these limits is usually called "imitation" -- that is, writing which starts from the original author's work, just as translation does, but then proceeds quite on its own. The best-known practitioner of "imitation," in our time, is Robert Lowell. His 1961 volume, Imitations, is as I have said "a kind of hybrid form, neither original poetry nor translation" (Raffel 1981, 113).

Works Cited and Referred To

American College Dictionary. N.Y.: Random House, 1967.

Catullus ... Ed. F.W. Cornish. London: Heinemann, 1968.

Cohen, J.M., trans. Don Quixote. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1950.

Covarrubias, Sebastian de. Tesoro de la lengua castellana o española. Ed. Martín de Ri-
            quer. Barcelona: S.A. Horta, 1943.

Einstein, Albert. Ideas and Opinions. N.Y.: Crown, 1954.

Exeter Book, The. Ed. G.P. Krapp and E.V.K. Dobbie. N.Y.:

Columbia U.P., 1936.

Gordon, I.L., ed. The Seafarer. London: Methuen, 1966.

Gregory, Bruce. Inventing Reality: Physics as Language. N.Y.: Wiley, 1990.

Ker, W.P. The Dark Ages. N.Y.: Mentor, 1958.

Lowell, Robert. Imitations. N.Y.: Farrar, Straus, 1961.

Martin, Charles. The Poems of Catullus. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins U.P., 1990.

Newman, Ernest. Wagner as Man and Artist. N.Y.: Vintage, 1960.

Ormsby, John, et al, trans. Don Quixote. N.Y.: Norton, 1981.

Pound, Ezra. Translations. N.Y.: New Directions, 1963.

Putnam, Samuel, trans. Don Quixote. N.Y.: Viking, 1951.

Raffel, Burton. "A Lost Poem by Chairil Anwar." Indonesia Circle, Summer 1995b.

---, trans. Don Quijote. N.Y.: Norton, 1995a.

---, Ezra Pound: Prime Minister of Poetry. Hamden: Archon, 1984.

---, Four Humours. Calcutta: Writer's Workshop, 1979.

---, Guide to Paperback Translations in the Humanities. Concord: The National Humanities Faculty, 1976.

---, "No tidbit love you outdoors far as a bier: Zukofsky's Catullus." Arion, VIII:3 (1969), 435-45.

---, trans. Poems From the Old English. Lincoln: U. of Nebraska P., 1960; 2nd ed., 1964.

---, Robert Lowell. N.Y.: Ungar, 1981.

---, The Art of Translating Poetry. Univ. Park: State U. Of Penn. P., 1988.

---, The Art of Translating Prose. Univ. Park: Penn State U.P., 1994.

---, trans. The Complete Poetry and Prose of Chairil Anwar. Albany: State U. Of N.Y. Press, 1970.

---, trans. The Essential Horace. San Francisco: North Point, 1983.

---, The Forked Tongue: A Study of the Translation Process. The Hague: Mouton, 1971.

---, trans. The Voice of the Night: Complete Poetry and Prose of Chairil Anwar. Athens: Ohio U.P., 1993.

---, "Translating Cervantes." Cervantes, Spring 1993, 5-30.

Smollett, Tobias, trans. Don Quixote. N.Y.: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1986.

Starkie, Walter, trans. Don Quixote. N.Y.: Signet, 1964.

Wagner, Richard. Stories and Essays. La Salle: Open Court, 1991.

Zukoksky, Celia and Louis. Catullus. N.Y.: Grossman, 1969.